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The Arab region is described since the first Arab Human Development Report (2002) as “richer than it is developed”. For the first time, policy-makers in the region now have the benefit of an emerging database of evidence about the impact of the social protection systems their countries have had in place for decades. Using this available policy evaluation data which is still limited in scope, but nevertheless of reliable quality, this research paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of the social protection systems of the Arab region.



The aim of this report is to present a comprehensive desk review and mapping exercise for an overview of the impact of climate change on the Arab region. The report is based on existing literature from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), technical papers and expert reports about the impact of climate change on Arab countries.



government and the launch of a transitional road map. The road map includes a constitutional revision process, legislative and institutional reforms as well as a timetable for elections. Several national investigations have been launched regarding actions that were taken which resulted in nationwide killings, arrests and attacks on public properties and churches. The state of emergency and the curfew, which were declared on 14 August 2013, were lifted on 11 November 2013.



Demands for reform continued to be made in Bahrain, but were also voiced in other countries of the Middle East and Gulf region. In response to protests, some States have embarked on public Investment  programmes to improve public services or engaged in selective political reform processes, while others resorted to severe restrictions on freedoms of expression, association and assembly. In some States, human rights defenders and political activists were imprisoned for demanding political reforms.



Throughout 2012, the world economy continued to struggle to recover from the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. Central banks in developed economies took the stance of monetary easing to its maximum. A series of monetary policy coordination efforts of that line had successfully contained the contagion of liquidity crisis.

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